This page is intended to support the process of improving and validating the use and representation of values across FIBO. Values in this regard may be distinguished from “entities”; values are immutable and non-temporal, their identity is fully defined by their immutable content. Values includes xsd defined literals, FIBO “Business Facing Types” (BFT) and OWL classes representing values. A common abstraction and representation for value classes is defined in the ontology “Values.rdf”, however that ontology has issues that must be resolved. A process is required to make FIBO consistently follow current polices.

Factors to be considered

·        Maintaining (and improving) consistency and validity across all of FIBO

·        Changes impacting OMG specifications

·        Changes impacting current use of FIBO

·        Understandability & Simplicity

·        Capture & use of stakeholder terms and concepts

·        Consistency with referenced standards

·        Semantic precision

·        Technology and data representation independence

·        Business Facing Types is now thought to be undesirable and should be deprecated

·        Balancing consistency with ontologists preference

Related Issues

                 FND-91

                 FND-151

                 FND-99

                 FND-103

                 FND-107

                 FND-157

Current state of baseline (FIBO Master)

·        There is a lack constancy across FIBO in the use and representation of FIBO values.

·        The current Values.RDF redundantly defines concepts covered in established ontologies and has other issues previously documented.

·        It has been established that a repaired Values.RDF should be use as the foundation for FIBO classes representing values.

·        It has further been established that xsd literals and datatype properties may be used when there is insufficient semantic leverage in using value classes (noting that this is subjective)

·        Existing use of BFT was mechanically changed to use Values.RDF across much of FIBO (101 Ontologies) resulting in undesirable patterns – arbitrary use of classes where literals are sufficient and failure of existing classes to subclass “Value”.

Statistics to help evaluate scope and impact

(Some are approximate – raw data is available)

·        Types in Values.rdf are used 560 times across 101 ontologies

·        XSD data types are used 146 times across 102 ontologies

·        BFTs are used 64 times across 15 ontologies

·        There are also thousands of uses of XSD types in individuals and metadata

Recommended changes

·        Type substitutions as defines in the [Values Substitutions Page]

·        Consistent use of Values as defined in the [Values Review Page]

Process summary

·        Come to agreement on the changes to be made (this page). Note decisions are required for items marked “Choice”.

·        Branch from “Master” and validate that it passes all tests as-is

·        Ensure that CCM models are up to date with branch

·        Make the substitutions detailed in the Substitution List

·        Export impacted ontologies

·        Review and validate Values.RDF

·        Validate changes with Protégé

·        Check into branch to kick-off full validation

·        Inspect validation & review by FND team

·        Further validate with use of individuals per Elisa’s Suggestions for validation

·        Check-in any modifications

·        FND Team to review & modify each of the ontologies on the “Values Review Page”

·        Check in and repeat validations

·        Complete with pull request

Other Choices


·        To fold “Value” and “AtomicValue” into one class with an optional “hasValue” property.


·        Further review of ontologies using BFT