The Commons Ontology Library (Commons) v1.0 Specification was approved for formalization at the December 2022 OMG Technical Meeting. The specification and ontologies are available on the OMG site at and in GitHub at FIBO has depended on classes and properties that, for many years, were embedded in the Languages, Countries and Codes (LCC) ontologies (also an OMG standard, available at ), which include content that is not needed in many cases. The domain independent concepts and properties have been implemented in the building blocks in the Commons ontology library, extended and improved on. Use of the Commons Ontology Library is a more appropriate solution, as only the immediately relevant concepts are included in those ontologies. The concepts and properties that are redundant with the new Commons library will be deprecated as the LCC 1.3 release is completed at OMG, and will be eliminated from LCC over time.

The table below includes the mapping from what we have used to date in FIBO to the corresponding replacement for FIBO users to assist with transitioning their applications of FIBO to use the Commons library instead.

Table 1. Mapping Reused Terms from LCC to Replacements in Commons

OntologyOriginal ElementOriginal Element IRINew ElementNew Element IRINotes
Language Representationdenoteslcc-lr;denotesdenotescmns-dsg;denotescmns-id;identifies is a subproperty of cmns-dsg;denotes, so in cases where both occur we are eliminating the use of cmns-dsg;denotes in FIBO going forward.


For the most part, this is used as a parent property for other properties, and will be retired. In certain cases, where the property in FIBO characterizes or classifies something, a more appropriate parent property from Commons will be used.

has denotationlcc-lr:hasDenotationis signified bycmns-dsg;isSignifiedBy

has memberlcc-lr;hasMemberhas membercmns-col;hasMember


is identified bylcc-lr;isIdentifiedByis identified bycmns-id;isIdentifiedBy

is member oflcc-lr;isMemberOfis member ofcmns-col;isMemberOf

has namelcc-lr;hasNamehas text value



'has name' is a data property in LCC, and an object property in Commons - thus a new property, 'has textual name' has been added to the Agents ontology as a subproperty of 'has text value'. 

has taglcc-lr;hasTaghas text value



'has tag' is used throughout FIBO to provide a text value for certain codes - thus a new property, 'has tag' has been added to the Agents ontology as a subproperty of 'has text value'.


code elementlcc-lr;CodeElementcode elementcmns-cds;CodeElement

code setlcc-lr;CodeSetcode setcmns-cds;CodeSet


identification schemelcc-lr;IdentificationSchemeidentification schemecmns-id;IdentificationScheme


Country Representationclassifieslcc-cr;classifiesclassifiescmns-cls;classifies

has partlcc-cr;hasParthas partcmns-col;hasPart

is classified bylcc-cr;isClassifiedByis classified bycmns-cls;isClassifiedBy

is part oflcc-cr;isPartOfis part ofcmns-col;isPartOf

is used bylcc-cr;isUsedByis used bycmns-cxtdsg;isUsedBy


In addition to LCC, there is some (minimal) redundancy in FIBO with the now published Commons ontologies. The mapping from what was used in FIBO to the relevant Commons replacements is given in Table 2, below. Elements that are now redundant in FIBO have been deprecated and will eventually be eliminated from the FIBO ontologies.

OntologyOriginal ElementOriginal Element IRINew ElementNew Element IRINotes
Agentslanguage-tagged stringrdf;langStringlanguage-tagged stringrdf;langStringThis declaration is now available in the Commons Text Datatypes ontology and not needed in FIBO. No deprecation is required in this case.

has structured namefibo-fnd-aap-agt;hasStructuredNamehas namecmns-dsg;hasName

has text valuefibo-fnd-aap-agt;hasTextValuehas text valuecmns-txt;hasTextValue

is structured name offibo-fnd-aap-agt;isStructuredNameOfis name ofcmns-dsg;isNameOf


Arrangementscollection constituentfibo-fnd-arr-arr;CollectionConstituentconstituentcmns-col;Constituent

structured collectionfibo-fnd-arr-arr;StructuredCollectionstructured collectioncmns-col;StructuredCollection

has constituentfibo-fnd-arr-arr;hasConstituenthas constituentcmns-col;hasConstituent

is constituent offibo-fnd-arr-arr;isConstituentOfis constituent ofcmns-col;isConstituentOf

is included infibo-fnd-rel-rel;isIncludedInis included incmns-col;isIncludedIn

has contextfibo-fnd-rel-rel;hasContextis applicable incmns-cxtdsg;isApplicableIn

has representationfibo-fnd-rel-rel;hasRepresentationis signified bycmns-dsg;isSignifiedBy



is defined infibo-fnd-rel-rel;isDefinedInis defined incmns-dsg;isDefinedIn

is conferred onfibo-fnd-rel-rel:isConferredOnis conferred onfibo-fnd-law-lcap;isConferredOnThis property was moved to eliminate a potential circular relationship between ontologies using Relations

applies tofibo-fnd-rel-rel;appliesToapplies tocmns-cxtdsg;appliesTo


is characterized byfibo-fnd-rel-rel;isCharacterizedByis characterized bycmns-cls;isCharacterizedBy


is described byfibo-fnd-rel-rel;isDescribedByis described bycmns-dsg;isDescribedBy

Classification Schemesclassifierfibo-fnd-arr-cls;Classifierclassifiercmns-cls;Classifier

classification schemefibo-fnd-arr-cls;ClassificationSchemeclassification schemecmns-cls;ClassificationScheme


Identifiers and Indicescomposite identifierfibo-fnd-arr-id;CompositeIdentifierstructured identifiercmns-cxtid;StructuredIdentifier

Partiescontextual namefibo-fnd-pty-pty;ContextualNamecontextual namecmns-cxtdsg;ContextualNameNote that the original restriction on contextual name with respect to the property 'holdsDuring' now uses the property 'cmns-cxtdsg;hasApplicablePeriod'

Jurisdictionapplies infibo-fnd-law-jur;appliesInis applicable incmns-cxtdsg;isApplicableIn

Dates and Timescombined date timefibo-fnd-dt-fd;CombinedDateTimecombined date timecmns-dt;CombinedDateTime


date periodfibo-fnd-dt-fd;DatePerioddate periodcmns-dt;DatePeriod

date timefibo-fnd-dt-fd;DateTimedate timecmns-dt;DateTime

date time stampfibo-fnd-dt-fd;DateTimeStampdate time stampcmns-dt;DateTimeStamp



explicit datefibo-fnd-dt-fd;ExplicitDateexplicit datecmns-dt;ExplicitDate

explicit date periodfibo-fnd-dt-fd;ExplicitDatePeriodexplicit date periodcmns-dt;ExplicitDatePeriod

explicit durationfibo-fnd-dt-fd;ExplicitDurationexplicit durationcmns-dt;ExplicitDuration

time instantfibo-fnd-dt-fd;TimeInstanttime instantcmns-dt;TimeInstant

time intervalfibo-fnd-dt-fd;TimeIntervaltime intervalcmns-dt;TimeInterval

time of dayfibo-fnd-dt-fd;TimeOfDaytime of daycmns-dt;TimeOfDay

has datefibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasDatehas datecmns-dt;hasDate

has date periodfibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasDatePeriodhas date periodcmns-dt;hasDatePeriod

has date timefibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasDateTimehas date timecmns-dt;hasDateTime

has date time stampfibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasDateTimehas date time stampcmns-dt;hasDateTimeStamp

has date time stamp valuefibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasDateTimeStampValuehas date time stamp valuecmns-dt;hasDateTimeStampValue

has date time valuefibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasDateTimeValuehas date time valuecmns-dt;hasDateTimeValue

has date valuefibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasDateValuehas date valuecmns-dt;hasDateValue

has durationfibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasDurationhas durationcmns-dt;hasDuration

has duration valuefibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasDurationValuehas duration valuecmns-dt;hasDurationValue

has end datefibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasEndDatehas end datecmns-dt;hasEndDate

has explicit datefibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasExplicitDatehas explicit datecmns-dt;hasExplicitDate

has observed date timefibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasObservedDateTimehas observed date timecmns-dt;hasObservedDateTime

has start datefibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasStartDatehas start datecmns-dt;hasStartDate

has time valuefibo-fnd-dt-fd;hasTimeValuehas time valuecmns-dt;hasTimeValue


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  1. Why not treat has name the same as has tag?  I think we will need sub properties of has text value to specify what type of text value, e.g., has name and has tag.  has text value is too broad.  I also don't understand why identifier doesn't fall into the same problem.  I would think it should be has identifier.

    1. We likely will need to create several subproperties of 'has text value' as you mention. I would do that in FIBO rather than depending on some of these things from LCC, though, to minimize issues if there is more divergence or change across FIBO, LCC, Commons, and other things. Note that the identifiers model uses classes that have identifiers as instances - which we need if we add things like when they were registered or valid dates, etc,, such as for security identifiers and LEIs. But we also have used a text value or tag for the actual value of the identifier so that using SPARQL one could get the identifier value returned.

      The summary mapping, above, only covers the elements that are in FIBO from LCC, not other duplication that now exists between FIBO and the Commons library, which we should handle under a separate or multiple separate issues. Commons is relatively small, but the ontologies are really well-formed and can eliminate some inconsistencies that still lurk here and there in FIBO. We need to actually document some of the patterns we are using to be even more consistent, which is one of the things I'm starting to do.